The Victoria & Albert Museum writes of 1850s women’s dress:
“In the 1850s, women’s skirts were domed and bell-shaped, supported by crinoline petticoats. They often featured deep flounces or tiers. Long bloomers and pantaloons trimmed with lace were popular. Tiered cape-jackets were fashionable, as were paisley patterned shawls. Deep bonnets were worn and hair was swept into buns or side coils from a center parting.”
 Victorian Magazine summarizes women’s fashion of the 1850s, writing:

“The mid-nineteenth century lady was a vision of elegance and grace in a beautiful Victorian dress lavishly trimmed with frills, flounces, lace, braid, fringe, ruche and ribbons. The fashion conscious Victorian lady created this appearance with a mysterious combination of the “uncomfortable and inconvenient” with the “frivolous and decorative.” Numerous heavy petticoats, layers of underclothes, a metal hoop skirt, tight corsets worn under-pointed boned bodices of whalebone and steel were hidden by an array of ornately accented undersleeves, collars, pelerines, fans, gloves, hats, and parasols. The finished look was of elegance and grace with an illusion of ease and comfort.”

The Empress Eugenie Surrounded by her Ladies in Waiting

Fig. 1 - Franz Xaver Winterhalter (German, 1805-1873). The Empress Eugenie Surrounded by her Ladies in Waiting, 1855. Oil on canvas; 300 × 420 cm (118.1 × 165.4 in). Compiègne: Musée du Second Empire, MMPO 941. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Woman's dress: bodice, skirt and underbodice

Fig. 2 - Designer unknown (American). Woman's dress: bodice, skirt and underbodice, ca. 1850. Silk brocade, cotton/linen lace; waist: 61 cm (24 in). Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1949-66-1a--c. Gift of Dr. Stephen Pintard Ryan, 1949. Source: Philadelphia Museum of Art

Moniteur de la Mode

Fig. 3 - Jules David (French, 1808-1892). Moniteur de la Mode, 1855 (plate #447). Hand-colored engraving. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, b17509853. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Empress Elizabeth of Austria

Fig. 4 - Franz Hanfstaengl (German, 1804-1877). Empress Elizabeth of Austria, 1854. Photograph. Source: Wikimedia Commons


Of 1850s men’s fashion, the V&A writes:

“Men wore matching coats, waistcoats and trousers, with hairstyles characterised by large mutton-chop side-burns and moustaches, after the style set by Prince Albert.Shirts had high upstanding collars and were tied at the neck with large bow-ties.High fastening and tight fitting frock coats were also very fashionable; though a new style called the sack coat (a thigh-length, loosely fitted jacket) became popular.The bowler hat was invented around 1850, but was generally seen as a working class hat, while top-hats were favoured by the upper classes.”

Of 1850s men’s fashion, Wikipedia writes:

“Shirts of linen or cotton featured high upstanding or turnover collars. The trend of detachable shirt collars and cuffs (although first appearing in men’s fashion in the 1820s) became highly popularized during this time period. The newly fashionable four-in-hand neckties were square or rectangular, folded into a narrow strip and tied in a bow, or folded on the diagonal and tied in a knot with the pointed ends sticking out to form “wings”. Heavy padded and fitted frock coats (in French redingotes), now usually single-breasted, were worn for business occasions, over waistcoats or vests with lapels and notched collars. Waistcoats were still cut straight across at the waist in front in 1850, but gradually became longer; the fashion for wearing the bottom button undone for ease when sitting lead to the pointed-hemmed waistcoat later in the century.

A new style, the sack coat, loosely fitted and reaching to mid-thigh, was fashionable for leisure activities; it would gradually replace the frock coat over the next forty years and become the modern suit coat.

The slightly cutaway morning coat was worn for formal day occasions. The most formal evening dress remained a dark tail coat and trousers, with a white cravat; this costume was well on its way to crystallizing into the modern “white tie and tails”.

Full-length trousers were worn for day. Breeches remained a requirement for formal functions at the British court (as they would be throughout the century). Breeches continued to be worn for horseback riding and other country pursuits, especially in Britain, with tall fitted boots.

Costumes consisting of a coat, waistcoat and trousers of the same fabric were a novelty of this period.

Starting in the 1850s and surviving until about the early 1900s (decade), facial hair became extremely popular, featuring a vast array of styles. This is well documented in famous photography of the era.

Tall top hats were worn with formal dress and grew taller on the way to the true stovepipe shape, but a variety of other hat shapes were popular. Soft-crowned hats, some with wide brims, were worn for country pursuits. The bowler hat was invented in 1850 but remained a working-class accessory.”

Gentleman's Magazine

Fig. 1 - Artist unknown. Gentleman's Magazine, June 1853 (Plate 2). Hand-colored engraving. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, b17509853. Gift of Woodman Thompson. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Franz Liszt

Fig. 2 - Franz Hanfstaengl (German, 1804-1877). Franz Liszt, ca. 1860. Photograph. Source: Wikimedia


Fig. 3 - Designer unknown (British). Waistcoat, ca. 1850. Woven silk velvet, lined with sateen; length: 56 cm, width: 51 cm. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, T.133-1967. Given by Mrs E. Alliott. Source: V&A


Le Bon Ton

Fig. 1 - Heloise Leloir (French, 1820-1873). Le Bon Ton, a. 19, vol. 2, 4th l., no. 6 (c. July 1853). Hand-colored engraving. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, b17509853. Gift of Mrs. Sherman Becker, Jr.. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Young girl

Fig. 2 - Edward Isaak Asser (Dutch, 1809-1894). Young girl, ca. 1850s. Photograph. Source: Pinterest

Boy's dress

Fig. 3 - Designer unknown (American). Boy's dress, 1850-1855. Wool, silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.667. Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009; Gift of Anna B. Pierson, 1941. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art


Historical Context

Wikipedia: 1850-1859

Map of Europe in 1852. Source: Omniatlas

  • 1851 – Great Exhibition, London, people observe fashion and style. American women’s rights activist Amelia Bloomer makes the bloomer pants popular.
  • 1852 – The Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine is published, including advice on needlework from domestic writer Mrs. Beeton.
  • 1853-1855 – Crimean War
  • 1854 – With the birth of photography comes the “carte de visite,” a fashionable visiting card that includes a photograph of the traveler. Immense popularity leads to the publication of the cards of prominent figures, whose fashions are followed.
  • 1855 – A dotted pattern on fabric is named, “polka dot” after the polka, a popular dance.
  • 1859 – Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species. A new range of dye colors in purple-pink hues are discovered and named magenta and solferino after contemporary battles

Primary/Period Sources

Resources for Fashion History Research

To discover primary/period sources, explore the categories below.
Have a primary source to suggest?  Or a newly digitized periodical/book to announce?  Contact us!

NYC-Area Special Collections of Fashion Periodicals/Plates
Fashion Periodicals (Digitized)
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 4. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1854. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015074624639.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 5. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=QcsYAQAAMAAJ.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 7–8. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1856. http://books.google.com/books?id=OjEZAAAAYAAJ.
Arthur’s Home Magazine. Vol. 3–4. T.S. Arthur & Company, 1854. http://books.google.com/books?id=dlHQAAAAMAAJ.
Blackwood’s Lady’s Magazine. Vol. 42, 1857. https://books.google.com/books?id=d0UFAAAAQAAJ.
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1857. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2969099.
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1857. http://books.google.com/books?id=qZxLAAAAcAAJ.
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1858. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2969015.
Der Bazar : illustrirte Damen-Zeitung. Berlin: Bazar-A.G., 1859. http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/ihd/periodical/structure/2924023.
Frank Leslie’s New Family Magazine. Vol. 2. Frank Leslie, 1857. https://books.google.com/books?id=5Fw2AQAAMAAJ.
Frank Leslie’s New Family Magazine. Vol. 3. Frank Leslie, 1858. http://books.google.com/books?id=FF02AQAAMAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 45. Philadelphia, 1852. http://books.google.com/books?id=3Y9MAAAAMAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 50. Philadelphia, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=R8dMAAAAMAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 51. Philadelphia, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=K8ZMAAAAMAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 51. Philadelphia, 1855. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015027389413.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 50. Philadelphia, 1855. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015004111251.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 52–53. Philadelphia, 1856. http://books.google.com/books?id=R8dMAAAAMAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 52–53. Philadelphia, 1856. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015027389421.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 54. Philadelphia, 1857. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015010943952.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 55. Philadelphia, 1857. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015012373299.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 58. Philadelphia, 1859. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015016441522.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 59. Philadelphia, 1859. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015004111244.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 57. Philadelphia, 1858. http://books.google.com/books?id=8n1MAAAAMAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 56. Philadelphia, 1858. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015016441548.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 57. Philadelphia, 1858. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015016441530.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 55. Philadelphia, 1857. http://books.google.com/books?id=Y8hMAAAAMAAJ.
Godey’s Lady’s Book. Vol. 58–59. Philadelphia, 1859. https://books.google.com/books?id=N8JZAAAAYAAJ.
Graham’s American Monthly Magazine of Literature, Art, and Fashion. Vol. 47. G.R. Graham, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=L8AgAAAAMAAJ.
Graham’s Illustrated Magazine. Vol. 49. G.R. Graham, 1856. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ck8TAAAAMAAJ.
Graham’s Magazine. Vol. 43. G.R. Graham, 1853. http://books.google.com/books?id=1qfPAAAAMAAJ.
Graham’s Magazine. Vol. 42. G.R. Graham, 1853. http://books.google.com/books?id=VqfPAAAAMAAJ.
Graham’s Magazine. Vol. 22–23. G.R. Graham, 1852. http://books.google.com/books?id=tKbPAAAAMAAJ.
Graham’s Magazine. Vol. 39. G.R. Graham, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=R6jPAAAAMAAJ.
Harper’s Magazine. Vol. 1, 1850. http://books.google.com/books?id=LnMCAAAAIAAJ.
Harper’s Magazine. Vol. 11, 1855. http://books.google.com/books?id=C3cCAAAAIAAJ.
Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Vol. 9. Harper & Brothers, 1854. http://books.google.com/books?id=yS4ZAAAAYAAJ.
Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. Vol. 18. Harper & Brothers, 1859. http://books.google.com/books?id=MysZAAAAYAAJ.
Journal Des Demoiselles. Vol. 19. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1851. http://fig.lib.harvard.edu/fig/?action=read&bib=005380390&sbc=HN4I91.
Journal Des Demoiselles. Vol. 21. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1853. http://fig.lib.harvard.edu/fig/?action=read&bib=005380390&sbc=HN4HYN.
Journal Des Demoiselles. Vol. 22. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1854. http://fig.lib.harvard.edu/fig/?action=read&bib=005380390&sbc=HN4HYP.
Journal Des Demoiselles. Vol. 23. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1855. http://fig.lib.harvard.edu/fig/?action=read&bib=005380390&sbc=HN4IDU.
Journal Des Demoiselles. Vol. 25. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1857. http://fig.lib.harvard.edu/fig/?action=read&bib=005380390&sbc=HN4I8X.
Journal Des Demoiselles. Vol. 27. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1859. http://fig.lib.harvard.edu/fig/?action=read&bib=005380390&sbc=HN73K3.
Journal Des Demoiselles. Vol. 24. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1856. http://fig.lib.harvard.edu/fig/?action=read&bib=005380390&sbc=HN4I8Y.
Journal Des Demoiselles. Vol. 26. Paris: Bureau du journal, 1858. http://fig.lib.harvard.edu/fig/?action=read&bib=005380390&sbc=HN73IX.
La Mode. Paris: Aubert, 1850. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb32817434b/date.
La Mode. Paris: Aubert, 1851. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb32817434b/date.
La Mode. Paris: Aubert, 1853. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb32817434b/date.
La Mode. Paris: Aubert, 1854. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb32817434b/date.
La Mode. Paris: Aubert, 1852. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb32817434b/date.
Etiquette Books (Digitized)
Abell, L. G. Woman in Her Various Relations: Containing Practical Rules for American Females, the Best Methods for Dinners and Social Parties, a Chapter for Young Ladies, Mothers, and Invalids, Hints on the Body, Mind, and Character. Fireside Series. New York: William Holdredge, 1851. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005877015.
American gentleman. True Politeness. A Hand-Book of Etiquette for Gentlemen. New York: Leavitt & Allen, 1853. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100866791.
Bascherelle, Louis Nicolas. L’art de Briller En Société et de Se Conduire Dans Toutes Les Circonstances de La Vie. L’instruction Popularisée Par l’illustration. Paris: Maresq, 1851. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008372048.
Cairns Collection of American Women Writers., and Carlton & Phillips. The Book of Manners: A Guide to Social Intercourse. New-York: Carlton & Phillips, 1856. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777093.
Cairns Collection of American Women Writers., and George A. Leavitt & Co. Pocket Book of Good Society. New York: Geo. A. Leavitt, 1850. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777130.
Cham. Nouvelles Lecons de Civilité, Puérile et Honnête. Civilitʹe Puʹerile et Honnête. Paris: Maison Martinet, 1850. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/102217693.
Chapus, Eugène. Manuel de l’homme et de La Femme Comme Il Faut. Bibliothèque Nouvelle. Paris: Librarie Nouvelle, 1855. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011544896.
Conkling, Margaret C. The American Gentleman’s Guide to Politeness and Fashion, or Familiar Letters to His Nephews. New York: Derby & Jackson, 1858. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001921285.
Day, Charles William. The American Ladies’ and Gentleman’s Manual of Elegance, Fashion, and True Politeness. Manual of Fashion and Politeness. Auburn New York: James M. Alden, 1850. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011261511.
De Valcourt, Robert. The Illustrated Manners Book: A Manual of Good Behavior and Polite Accomplishments. New York: Leland, Clay, 1855. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011543963.
Eddy, Daniel C. The Young Woman’s Friend, or, The Duties, Trials, Loves, and Hopes of Woman. Boston: Wentworth, 1857. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008688801.
Hervey, George Winfred. The Principles of Courtesy: With Hints and Observations of Manners and Habits. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1852. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011529796.
Hutchinson, E. Ladies’ Indispensable Assistant: Being a Companion for the Sister, Mother, and Wife ...: Here Are the Very Best Directions for the Behavior and Etiquette of Ladies and Gentlemen ...: Also, Safe Directions for the Management of Children ... a Great Variety of Valuable Recipes, Forming a Complete System of Family Medicine ...: To Which Is Added One of the Best Systems of Cookery Ever Published ... New-York: [s.n.], 1852. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100142550.
Leslie, Eliza. The Behaviour Book: A Manual for Ladies / by Miss Leslie. Philadelphia: W. P. Hazard, 1853. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/005777081.
Leslie, Eliza. Miss Leslie’s Behaviour Book: A Guide and Manual for Ladies as Regards Their Conversation; Manners; Dress; with Full Instructions and Advice in Letter Writing [!]; Receiving Presents; Incorrect Words. Philadelphia: T. B. Peterson and brothers, 1859. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011255083.
Porter, James. The Operative’s Friend, and Defence, or, Hints to Young Ladies Who Are Dependent on Their Own Exertions. Hints to Young Ladies, Who Are Dependent on Their Own Exertions. Boston: C.H. Peirce, 1850. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011529795.
Richards, Cornelia Holroyd Bradley. At Home and Abroad; or, How to Behave. New York: Evans and Brittan, 1853. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011536644.
Smith, Daniel. The Book of Manners: A Guide to Social Intercourse. New York: Carlton & Phillips, 1854. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007958094.
Thornwell, Emily. The Lady’s Guide to Perfect Gentility: In Manners, Dress, and Conversation ... Also a Useful Instructor in Letter Writing ... New York : Cincinnati: Derby & Jackson; H.W. Derby, 1856. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011600527.
Wells, Samuel R., and D. H. Jacques. How to Behave: A Pocket Manual of Republican Etiquette, and Guide to Correct Personal Habits: Embracing an Exposition of the Principles of Good Manners, Useful Hints on the Care of the Person, Eating, Drinking, Exercise, Habits, Dress, Self-Culture, and Behavior at the Home ... with Illustrative Anecdotes, a Chapter on Love and Courtship, and Rules of Order for Debating Societies. Hand-Books for Home Improvement ;No. III. New York: Fowler and Wells, 1856. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676394.
Wise, Daniel. The Young Lady’s Counsellor: Or, Outlines and Illustrations of the Sphere, the Duties and the Dangers of Young Women. New York: Carlton & Porter, 1851. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008621749.
Wise, Daniel. The Young Man’s Counsellor: Or, Sketches and Illustrations of the Duties and Dangers of Young Men. New-York: Carlton & Phillips, 1853. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011538426.
Woodbury, Augustus. Plain Words to Young Men. Concord, N.H.: Edson C. Eastman, 1858. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011538918.
Hand-Books for Home Improvement: Comprising How to Write, How to Behave, How to Talk, How to Do Business ; Complete in One Volume. New York: Fowler and Wells, 1857. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008676316.
The Habits of Good Society: A Handbook of Etiquette for Ladies and Gentlemen. London: J. Hogg & Sons, 1859. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/101738400.
Elegant Arts for Ladies: Comprising ... London: Ward and Lock, 1856. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100244177.

Secondary Sources

Also see the 19th-century overview page for more research sources... or browse our Zotero library.

“Chronology.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/#?time=10.
“Fashion Timeline: 1850 To 1860.” Vintage Fashion Guild, n.d. https://vintagefashionguild.org/fashion-timeline/1850-to-1860/.
“History of Fashion 1840 - 1900.” Victoria and Albert Museum, July 11, 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/history-of-fashion-1840-1900/.
“Introduction to 19th-Century Fashion.” Victoria and Albert Museum, January 25, 2011. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/.
Glasscock, Jessica. “Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, n.d. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19sil/hd_19sil.htm.
“Victorian Era: The Crinoline Period (1850-1869).” History of Fashion and Dress, n.d. http://www.maggiemayfashions.com/belleepoque.html.
Acton, William R. Acton’s Improvements on The Tailor’s Transfer; Philadelphia, King & Baird, printers, 1862. http://archive.org/details/actonsimprovemen00acto.
Ashelford, Jane, and Andreas Einsiedel. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society, 1500-1914. London: National Trust, 1996. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/759883168.
Beukel, Dorine van den. Fashion Design 1850-1895. New York: By Design Press, 1997. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/743141113.
Boucher, François. Paris, Miroir de La Mode: Crinolines et Calèches, 1855-1867. Paris: Éditions Rombaldi, 1959. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/438804700.
Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. Expanded ed. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1987. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/979316852.
Brown, Susan, ed. Fashion: The Definitive History of Costume and Style. New York: DK Publishing, 2012. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840417029.
Cole, Daniel James, and Nancy Deihl. The History of Modern Fashion from 1850. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/900012311.
Costume, Society. Early Victorian Costume 1830-1860; Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the Costume Society, 1969. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1969. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/976708381.
De Young, Justine. “Not Just a Pretty Picture: Fashion as News.” In Getting the Picture: The Visual Culture of the News, edited by Jason E. Hill and Vanessa R. Schwartz, 109–15. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/987101210.
Dilday, E. [from old catalog. E. Dilday’s Plain and Concise Method of Garment Cutting: St. Louis, Mo., Keith, Woods & co., printers, 1856. http://archive.org/details/edildaysplaincon00dild.
Edwards, Lydia. How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/988370049.
Fukai, Akiko, ed. Fashion: A History from the 18th to the 20th Century. Köln: Taschen, 2006. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/857267477.
Geer, Salomon [from old catalog. Der zuschneider wie er sein soll, oder, Gründliche anweisung zum selbst-unterricht im zuschneiden. New-York, M.W. Siebert, 1854. http://archive.org/details/derzuschneiderwi00geer.
Goldthorpe, Caroline. From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1857-1877. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/464219264.
Greve, J. C. D. [from old catalog. Art du tailleur. Cincinnati, J. C. D. Greve, 1855. http://archive.org/details/artdutailleur00grev.
Hill, Daniel Delis. History of World Costume and Fashion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/768100950.
Hunter, A. J. [from old catalog. The Garment Cutter and Ladies Guide. Glasgow, Ky., J. Noble, printer, 1853. http://archive.org/details/garmentcutterlad00hunt.
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. “The Carte de Visite and Portrait Painting during the Second Empire.” In A.A.E. Disdéri and the Carte de Visite Portrait Photograph, 137–203. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/755288192.
Nead, Lynda. “The Layering of Pleasure: Women, Fashionable Dress and Visual Culture in the Mid-Nineteenth Century.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 35, no. 5 (2013): 489–509.
Olian, JoAnne, ed. 80 Godey’s Full-Color Fashion Plates, 1838-1880. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 1998. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/868271404.
Piazza, Arianna, ed. Fashion 150: 150 Years, 150 Designers. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/961459695.
Ribeiro, Aileen. Ingres in Fashion: Representations of Dress and Appearance in Ingres’s Images of Women. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/469680932.
Schweinhart, William [from old catalog. The Young Crook’s Guide; Gettysburg [Pa.] Printed by H. C. Neinstedt, 1851. http://archive.org/details/youngcrooksguide00schw.
Severa, Joan L. Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1995. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/552147475.
Solomon-Godeau, Abigail. “The Legs of the Countess.” October 39 (Winter 1986): 65–108.
Takeda, Sharon Sadako, Kaye Durland Spilker, Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell, Clarissa Esguerra, and Nicole LaBouff. Fashioning Fashion: European Dress in Detail, 1700-1915. New York: DelMonico Books/Prestel, 2010. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/971876353.
Tétart-Vittu, Françoise. “La Couture Avant La Haute Couture.” In Au Paradis Des Dames : Nouveautés, Modes et Confections, 1810-1870, 40–45. Paris: Éditions Paris-Musées, 1992.
Tetart-Vittu, Françoise. Sous l’empire Des Crinolines. Paris: Paris musées, 2008. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1008171995.
Tortora, Phyllis G., and Sara B. Marcketti. Survey of Historic Costume. Sixth edition. New York: Fairchild Books, 2015. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/972500782.
Vincent, Susan J., and Denise Amy Baxter, eds. A Cultural History of Dress and Fashion: The Age of Empire (1800-1920). London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/967107605.
Evolution of Fashion 1835-1895 =: Rōman Ishō Ten: Clothing That Captured the Imagination of Japan, the Impact of Romantic Clothing. Kyoto: Kyoto Costume Institute, 1980. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/475808610.
“1800-1899 Fabrics & Textiles.” Pinterest, 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1800-1899-fabrics-textiles/.
“1800-1899 Jewelry.” Pinterest, 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1800-1899-jewelry/.
“1800-1900 Patterns & Tutorials,” 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/patterns-tutorials-1800-1900/.
“1850-1859 Women’s Historical Fashion,” 1850s. https://www.pinterest.com/Lucyfunk123/1850-1859-womens-historical-fashion/.
“1850s Accessories.” Pocket Museum, 1850s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1850s-accessories/.
“1850s Fashion.” Pocket Museum, 1850s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1850-s-fashion/.
“1850s Fashion in Photographs.” Pocket Museum, 1850s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1850s-fashion-in-photographs/.
“1850s Fashion Plates.” Pocket Museum, 1850s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1850s-fashion-plates/.
“1850s Headwear.” Pocket Museum, 1850s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1850s-headwear/.
“1850s Portrait Paintings.” Pocket Museum, 1850s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1850s-portrait-paintings/.
“1850s Underwear.” Pocket Museum, 1850s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1850s-underwear/.
“1850s Wedding Fashions.” Pocket Museum, 1850s. https://www.pinterest.com/pocketmuseum/1850s-wedding-fashions/.
“Children’s Victorian Clothes,” 1850s. https://www.pinterest.com/decarto/childrens-victorian-clothes/.
“Historic Costume - 19th Century,” 1850s. https://www.pinterest.com/maellen/historic-costume-19th-century/.
“Historic Costume - 19th Century,” 1800s. https://www.pinterest.com/maellen/historic-costume-19th-century/.